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First Aid Materials


R I C E


The RICE method is a widely used first aid approach for treating various types of injuries, particularly those involving soft tissue injuries such as sprains, strains, and minor injuries. It stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation. The RICE method aims to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation while promoting healing. Here's what each component of the RICE method involves:


R - Rest:

- Rest the injured area by avoiding any activities that could further aggravate the injury. This allows the body to initiate the healing process without additional stress.


I - Ice:

- Apply ice or a cold compress to the injured area for about 15-20 minutes every 1-2 hours during the first 24-48 hours after the injury.
- Ice helps reduce swelling, numb the area, and alleviate pain.


C - Compression:

- Use an elastic bandage or compression wrap to gently compress the injured area. This helps control swelling and provides support to the injured tissues.
- Ensure the compression is not too tight, as it shouldn't impede blood flow.


E - Elevation:

- Elevate the injured area above the level of the heart whenever possible. For example, if the injury is in the leg, prop it up on pillows.
- Elevation assists in reducing swelling by allowing fluids to drain away from the injured area.


The RICE method is commonly used for initial management of injuries until professional medical help can be obtained. It's important to note that while the RICE method can be effective for mild to moderate injuries, more severe injuries may require more advanced medical treatment. Additionally, if you're uncertain about the nature or severity of the injury, it's always best to seek medical advice from a healthcare professional.


Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)


CPR is artificial respiration and artificial circulation. Artificial respiration provides oxygen to the lungs. Artificial circulation causes blood to flow through the body. The purpose of CPR is to circulate enough oxygenated blood to the brain and other organs to delay damage until either the heart starts beating again, or medical help takes over from you. CPR is most effective when interruptions to chest compressions are minimized


CPR – Adult Casualty

  1. Perform a scene survey.
  2. Assess responsiveness.
  3. If there is no response, call for medical help on a mobile device, place the phone on speakerphone, and send someone for an AED. If no mobile phone is available, send or go for medical help and the AED, if available.
  4. Perform a primary survey.
    • Open the airway.
    • Check for breathing for at least 5 and no more than 10 seconds.
  5. If the casualty is not breathing, or not breathing effectively (agonal breaths) position your hands in the center of the upper chest and your shoulders directly over your hands. Keep your elbows locked
  6. Give 30 compressions—Push hard—Push Fast!
    • Press the heels of the hands straight down on the breastbone. The depth of each compression should be at 5-6 cm (2-2.4 inches).
    • Release pressure and completely remove your weight at the top of each compression to allow chest to return to the resting position.
    • Give compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute. Count compressions out loud to keep track of how many you have given, and to help keep a steady rhythm.
  7. Open the airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin.
  8. Position a barrier device and breathe into the casualty twice. For an adult casualty, each breath should take about for 1 second, with just enough air to make the chest rise.
    • This is one cycle of 30:2 (30 compressions to 2 ventilations).
  9. Continue CPR until either an AED is applied, the casualty begins to respond, another first aider or medical help takes over or you are too exhausted to continue. The AED should be applied as soon as it arrives at the scene

Agonal breathing



Agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing driven by a brain-stem reflex, characterized by irregular gasping respirations at times accompanied by strange vocalizations. They can occur with cardiac arrest and lead bystanders to believe the casualty is breathing. A casualty with agonal breathing should be treated as though they are not breathing.


CPR – Child casualty

  1. Perform a scene survey.
  2. Assess responsiveness.
  3. If there is no response, send or call for medical help and an AED if available. If you are alone with no phone perform 5 cycles of CPR (two minutes) then go for medical help. Carry the child with you if possible.
  4. Perform a primary survey:
    • Open the airway.
    • Check for breathing for at least 5 and no more than 10 seconds.
  5. If the casualty is not breathing, or not breathing effectively (agonal breaths) position your hands in the centre of the upper chest and your shoulders directly over your hands. Keep your elbows locked. You may use one or two hands depending on the size of the child.
  6. Give 30 compressions—Push hard—Push Fast!
    • Press the heels of the hands straight down on the breastbone. The depth of each compression should be 1/3 of the chest depth, or 5 cm (2 inches).
    • Release pressure and completely remove your weight at the top of each compression to allow chest to return to the resting position.
    • Give compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute. Count compressions out loud to keep track of how many you have given, and to help keep a steady rhythm.
  7. Open the airway by tilting the head and lifting the chin.
  8. Position a barrier device and breathe into the casualty twice, with just enough air to make the chest rise.



This is one cycle of 30:2 (30 compressions to 2 ventilations).


Continue CPR until either an AED is applied, the casualty begins to respond, another first aider or medical help takes over or you are too exhausted to continue. The AED should be applied as soon as it arrives to.

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Created : Aug 15, 2023 11:06pm
Last updated : Jul 18, 2024 03:30pm